Venice Beach, Los Angeles, California, USA [© F2014]


We showed in Part 2 of this series of articles that after an UE (e.g., 5G smartphone) finishes its Registration Procedures with a 5G System (5GS), the Session Management Function (SMF) in the 5GS’ Service Based Architecture (SBA) control plane coordinates the setup of a Packet Data Unit (PDU) session…

Harvard’s Widener Library, Cambridge, MA, USA [© F2018]


SSH Tunneling is very useful for SSH client and server to utilize remote and local resources respectively over an established SSH login session. Broadly speaking, there are three types of SSH tunneling namely the:

  • Local Port Forwarding — Forwards a local connection from a client host to a remote SSH…

Brighton Beach, East Sussex, UK [© FB2016]


Part 1 of this article provides a quick overview of what is 5G mobile core network or 5GC. It covers SMF, AMF, PCF, QoS Flow, SDF, DRB, and AN_Tunnel and CN_Tunnels etc…. It also shows how a UE (User Equipment such as a 5G Smartphone) can establish a PDU session…

Incheon, South Korea (view from Sheraton Incheon) [© F2013]


5G is certainly the loudest buzzword in the networking industry for the past few years. Many carriers announced their 5G networks in 2019 but these 5G deployments were mostly based on the 3GPP Release 15. …

The Bean, Millennium Park, Chicago, Illinois, USA [© B2013]


Not long ago, network equipment testing involves a lot of coordination with your colleagues to share and wire up the equipment in the lab before any testing can be started. …

Park 28 Panfilovtsev, Almaty, Kazakhstan [© B2010]


In my previous article, I showed how to setup and test layer 2 MPLS ePipe Pseudo Wire network service between Nokia 7750 and Cisco 7200 routers on a Windows 10 PC running GNS3. RSVP-TE and TLDP are used as the signalling protocols to establish the MPLS Transport and Service Tunnels…

Mont Des Arts, Brussels, Belgium [© B2014]


In the previous articles, I showed how to interop MPLS ePipe and VPRN network services between Nokia 7750 and Cisco 7200 routers on GNS3 ( on a Windows PC. In this blog, I will show how to config and verify Nokia 7750 and Juniper MX routers for MPLS VPLS (Virtual…

Magapark OOD, Sofia, Bulgaria [© B2017]


In the previous blogs, I showed how to interop among Nokia, Cisco and Juniper routers for different MPLS layers 2 and 3 network services such as ePipe, VPLS and VPRN using GNS3 and EVE-NG network emulators on a Windows 10 PC. The articles demonstrate the flexibility and cost-effectiveness of network…

Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, California, USA [© WB2018]


In my previous article, I showed how to setup layer 3 VPRN (or L3VPN) among Nokia 7750 and Cisco 7200 routers so that different IP subnets (e.g., PCs) served by a carrier’s IP/MPLS network can communicate. In fact, the carrier’s IP/MPLS network is shared by many different customers offering them…

National Museum, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia [© B2014]


Since 2000, carriers all over the world have been unifying their multi-silos Wide Area Networks (WAN) comprising ATM, TDM, Frame Relay, and IP etc… into a single QoS-ready MPLS WAN network to take advantages of the advance in silicone technology and the industrial standard protocols. …

Derek Cheung

I live in Ottawa, Ontario Canada ( Some of my other remote memory backup is at ;-D

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